New York Physical Therapy Ebook Continuing Education

improved mobility and function in older adults. While resistance training has traditionally been overlooked for older adults, we now know that it is a critical component for successfully mitigating muscle and functional loss typically associated with aging. Prescribing alternative forms of exercise such as tai chi, Pilates, yoga, or downhill walking may be beneficial and warrants further research, particularly in older adults with comorbid conditions such as diabetes, OA, or dementia that make prescribing exercise particularly challenging. Despite the gaps in our understanding, it is clear that exercise is beneficial for the majority of older adults, and prescribing both aerobic and resistance exercise should be a routine part of practice.

occur with aging and inactivity will allow practitioners to correctly recommend and implement exercise programs. While our understanding of changes that occur in the body with aging is still evolving, it now appears that many of these changes can at least be slowed and in some cases even reversed with the implementation of exercise. Researchers are still trying to determine which changes are age related and which result from inactivity. Further research is necessary to determine the most effective mode, duration, and frequency of exercise for older adults, particularly those with comorbid conditions such as dementia and OA. We know that following the recommended guidelines of engaging in 150–300 minutes of aerobic and resistance exercise three or more days a week results in Resources ● American College of Sports Medicine 401 West Michigan Street Indianapolis, IN 46202-3233 317-637-9200 https://www.acsm.org/ ● American Diabetes Association 2451 Crystal Drive, Suite 900 Arlington, VA 22202 800-342-2383 http://www.diabetes.org ● Arthritis Foundation National Office 1355 Peachtree Street NE Suite 600 Atlanta, GA 30309 404-872-7100 http://www.arthritis.org ● Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Healthy Aging Program 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta, GA 30329-4027 800-232-4636 http://www.cdc.gov/aging References Š Addison, O., Lastayo, P. C., Dibble, L. E., & Marcus, R. L. (2011). Inflammation, aging, and adiposity: Implications for physical therapists. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, 35 (2), 86-94. Š Addison, O., Marcus, R. L., Lastayo, P. C., & Ryan, A. S. (2014). Intermuscular fat: A review of the consequences and causes. International Journal of Endocrinology, 2014 , 309570. Š Ahmed, M. S., Matsumura, B., & Cristian, A. (2005). Age-related changes in muscles and joints. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 16 (1), 19-39. Š Ahren, B. (2013). Avoiding hypoglycemia: A key to success for glucose-lowering therapy in type 2 diabetes. Vascular Health and Risk Management, 9 , 155-163. Š Alnahdi, A. H., Zeni, J. A., & Snyder-Mackler, L. (2012). Muscle impairments in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Sports Health, 4 (4), 284- 292. Š American Diabetes Association (ADA). (2016). Standards of medical care in diabetes: 2016. Diabetes Care, 39 (Suppl 1), S23-35. Š American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA). (2017). Evidence supports the distinct value of occupational therapy for older adults. https://www.aota.org/-/media/corporate/files/aboutot/professionals/ whatisot/pa/older-adults-ebp-summary.pdf Š American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA). (2020). Occupational therapy practice framework: Domain and process (4th ed.). American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 74 , 3, 7412410010p1–7412410010p87. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2020.74S2001 Š American Physical Therapy Association (APTA). (2019). Guiding principles to achieve vision. https://www.apta. org/siteassets/pdfs/policies/guiding-principles-to-achieve-vision.pdf Š American Physical Therapy Association (APTA). (2021). 2021–2022 Public policy priorities. https://www.apta. org/siteassets/advocacy/apta- public-policy-priorities.pdf Š American Thoracic Society (ATS). (2002). ATS statement: Guidelines for the six-minute walk test. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 166 (1), 111-117. Š Andersen, L. B., Mota, J., & Di Pietro, L. (2016). Update on the global pandemic of physical inactivity. Lancet, 388 (10051), 1255-1256. Š Apostolopoulou, M., Savopoulos, C., Michalakis, K., Coppack, S., Dardavessis, T., & Hatzitolios, A. (2012). Age, weight and obesity. Maturitas, 71 (2), 115-119. Š Atkins, G. J., & Findlay, D. M. (2012). Osteocyte regulation of bone mineral: A little give and take. Osteoporosis International, 23 (8), 2067- 2079. Š Ballantyne, J, Fishman, S., & Rathmell, J. (2019). Bonica’s management of pain (5th ed.) . Wolters Kluwer. Š Barbat-Artigas, S., Filion, M. E., Dupontgand, S., Karelis, A. D., & Aubertin-Leheudre, M. (2011). Effects of tai chi training in dynapenic and nondynapenic postmenopausal women. Menopause, 18 (9), 974-979. Š Barbat-Artigas, S., Rolland, Y., Zamboni, M., & Aubertin-Leheudre, M. (2012). How to assess functional status: A new muscle quality index. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 16 (1), 67-77. Š Barthuly, A. M., Bohannon, R. W., & Gorack, W. (2012). Gait speed is a responsive measure of physical performance for patients undergoing short-term rehabilitation. Gait and Posture, 36 (1), 61-64. Š Bartos, L. J., Meek, G. A., & Berger, B. G. (2022). Effectiveness of yoga versus exercise for reducing falling risk in older adults: Physical and psychological indices. Perceptual and Motor Skills , 1245-1269. 00315125221100820. https://doi.org/10.1177/00315125221100820 Š Barzilai, N., Huffman, D. M., Muzumdar, R. H., & Bartke, A. (2012). The critical role of metabolic pathways in aging. Diabetes, 61 (6), 1315- 1322. Š Benias, P. et al, (2018). Structure and distribution of an unrecognized interstitium in human tissues. Scientific Report, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s441598-018-23062-6 Š Bennell, K. L., Hall, M., & Hinman, R. S. (2016). Osteoarthritis year in review 2015: Rehabilitation and outcomes. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 24 (1), 58-70. Š Booth, F. W., Laye, M. J., & Roberts, M. D. (2011). Lifetime sedentary living accelerates some aspects of secondary aging. Journal of Applied Physiology, 111 (5), 1497-1504. Š Booth, F. W., & Zwetsloot, K. A. (2010). Basic concepts about genes, inactivity and aging. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 20 (1), 1-4. Š Bordoni, B., & Marelli., F. (2017). Emotions in motion: Myofascial interoception. Complementary Medicine Research, 24 (2), 110-113. https://doi.org/10.1159/000464149 Š Braden, H. J., Hilgenberg, S., Bohannon, R. W., Ko, M. S., & Hasson, S. (2012). Gait speed is limited but improves over the course of acute care physical therapy. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, 35 (3), 140-144. Š Brismee, J. M., Paige, R. L., Chyu, M. C., Boatright, J. D., Hagar, J. M., McCaleb, J. A., . . . Shen, C. L. (2007). Group and home-based tai chi in elderly subjects with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation, 21 (2), 99-111. Š Cao, J. J. (2011). Effects of obesity on bone metabolism. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, 6 , 30. Š Casano, H. A. M., & Anjum, F. (2021). Six Minute Walk Test. StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing. https:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK576420/ Š Caughlin, R. Andrews, B., Richardson, M., Ayres, L., & Miller, K. (2022). Two minute step test: Review of psychometric properties. Gerinotes 29 (1), 24-27. Š Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2016a). Early release of selected estimates based on data from the National Health Interview Survey . National Center for Health Statistics. Š Chester, J. G., & Rudolph, J. L. (2011). Vital signs in older patients: Age-related changes. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 12 (5), 337-343. Š Chodzko-Zajko, W. J., Proctor, D. N., Fiatarone Singh, M. A., Minson, C. T., Nigg, C. R., Salem, G. J., & Skinner, J. S. (2009). American College of Sports Medicine position stand: Exercise and physical activity for older adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41 (7), 1510-1530. Š Clegg, A., & Hassan-Smith, Z. (2018). Frailty and the endocrine system. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology , 6 (9), 743-752.

● National Council on Aging

251 18th Street South, Suite 500 Arlington, VA 22202

571-527-3900 http://ncoa.org ● National Institute on Aging Building 31, Room 5C27 31 Center Drive, MSC 2292 Bethesda, MD 20892 800-222-2225 http://www.nia.nih.gov ● Growing Stronger: Strength Training for Older Adults https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/downloads/growing_stronger. pdf ● International Council on Active Aging 603-1112 West Pender Street Vancouver, BC V6E 2S1 866-335-9777 http://www.icaa.cc Š Cobo, A., Villalba-Mora, E., Pérez-Rodríguez, R., Ferre, X., Escalante, W., Moral, C., & Rodriguez-Mañas, L. (2020). Automatic and real- time computation of the 30-seconds chair-stand test without professional supervision for community-dwelling older adults. Sensors , 20 (20), 5813. Š Cohen-Mansfield, J., Marx, M. S., Ali, M. D., Regier, N. G., Thein, K., & Freeman, L. (2010). Can agitated behavior of nursing home residents with dementia be prevented with the use of standardized stimuli? Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 58 (8), 1459–1464. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.02951.x Š Concannon, L. G., Grierson, M. J., & Harrast, M. A. (2012). Exercise in the older adult: From the sedentary elderly to the masters athlete. PM&R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation, 4 (11), 833-839. Š Davan-Wetton, C. S., Pessolano, E., Perretti, M., & Montero-Melendez, T. (2021). Senescence under appraisal: Hopes and challenges revisited. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences , 78 (7), 3333-3354. Š Davis, C. M. (2017). Integrative therapies in rehabilitation: Evidence for efficacy in therapy, prevention, and wellness (4th ed.) . Slack Incorporated. Š de Castro Cezar, N. O., Ansai, J. H., de Oliveira, M. P. B., da Silva, D. C. P., de Lima Gomes, W., Barreiros, B. A., ... & de Andrade, L. P. (2021). Feasibility of improving strength and functioning and decreasing the risk of falls in older adults with Alzheimer's dementia: A randomized controlled home-based exercise trial. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics , 96 , 104476. Š DeFina, L. F., Leonard, D., Willis, B. L., Barlow, C. E., Finley, C. E., Jenkins, M. R., . . . Shen, C. L. (2016). High cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with reduced risk of low bone density in postmenopausal women. Journal of Women’s Health (Larchmt), 25 (10), 1073-1080. Š Demir, F., Şahin, M., & Ergezen, G. (2022). Effectiveness of proprioceptive exercise on balance and sensory function in nursing home geriatric individuals with diabetes: Randomized controlled trial. Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Medical Sciences, 42 (1), 27-34. Š den Hollander, M., Smeets, R. J., van Meulenbroek, T., van Laake-Geelen, C. C., Baadjou, V. A., & Timmers, I. (2022). Exposure in vivo as a treatment approach to target pain-related fear: Theory and new insights from research and clinical practice. Physical Therapy , 102 (2), pzab270. Š Devine, R. R., Avsar, P., Moore, Z., O'Connor, T., Nugent, L., & Patton, D. (2022). The effects of water-based exercise on body weight in people with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Diabetes Nursing , 26 (2). Š Drexel, H., Saely, C. H., Langer, P., Loruenser, G., Marte, T., Risch, L., . . . Aczel, S. (2008). Metabolic and anti-inflammatory benefits of eccentric endurance exercise: A pilot study. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 38 (4), 218-226. Š Eckstrom, E., Neukam, S., Kalin, L., & Wright, J. (2020). Physical activity and healthy aging. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine , 36 (4), 671-683. Š Englund, D. A., Sakamoto, A. E., Fritsche, C. M., Heeren, A. A., Zhang, X., Kotajarvi, B. R., ... LeBrasseur, N. K. (2021). Exercise reduces circulating biomarkers of cellular senescence in humans. Aging Cell , 20 (7), e13415. Š Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics. (2020). Older Americans 2020: Key indicators of well- being. U.S. Government Printing Office. https://agingstats.gov/docs/LatestReport/OA20_508_10142020.pdf Š Filelfi, S. L., Onorato, A., Brix, B., & Goswami, N. (2021). Lymphatic senescence: Current updates and perspectives. Biology , 10 (4), 293. Š Fletcher, G. F., Ades, P. A., Kligfield, P., Arena, R., Balady, G. J., Bittner, V. A., . . . Williams, M. A. (2013). Exercise standards for testing and training: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 128 (8), 873-934. Š Folland, J. P., Hawker, K., Leach, B., Little, T., & Jones, D. A. (2005). Strength training: Isometric training at a range of joint angles versus dynamic training. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23 (8), 817-824. Š Forbes, D., Forbes, S. C., Blake, C. M., Thiessen, E. J., & Forbes, S. (2015). Exercise programs for people with dementia. Cochrane Š Forbes, D., Thiessen, E. J., Blake, C. M., Forbes, S. C., & Forbes, S. (2013). Exercise programs for people with dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2013 (12), CD006489. Š Fountouki, A., Asimakopoulou, E., & Theofanidis, D. (2021). Falls in the elderly: A contemporary “health epidemic”? A discussion paper. Perioperative Nursing (GORNA), E-ISSN:2241-3634, 10 (3), 154-174. https:// doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5842156 Š Fragala, M. S., Cadore, E. L., Dorgo, S., Izquierdo, M., Kraemer, W. J., Peterson, M. D., & Ryan, E. D. (2019). Resistance training for older adults: Position statement from the national strength and conditioning association. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research , 33 (8), 2019-2052. https://doi.org/10.1519/ JSC.0000000000003230 Š Franco, M. R., Tong, A., Howard, K., Sherrington, C., Ferreira, P. H., Pinto, R. Z., & Ferreira, M. L. (2015). Older people’s perspectives on participation in physical activity: A systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative literature. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49 (19), 1268-1276. Š Frontera, W. R. (2017). Physiologic changes of the musculoskeletal system with aging: A brief review. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics , 28 (4), 705-711. Š Gine-Garriga, M., Roque-Figuls, M., Coll-Planas, L., Sitja-Rabert, M., & Salva, A. (2014). Physical exercise interventions for improving performance-based measures of physical function in community-dwelling, frail older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95 (4), 753-769, e753. Š Goodpaster, B. H., Park, S. W., Harris, T. B., Kritchevsky, S. B., Nevitt, M., Schwartz, A. V., . . . Newman, A. B. (2006). The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: The health, aging and body composition study. Journals of Gerontology. Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 61 (10), 1059-1064. Š Goodpaster, B. H., Thaete, F. L., & Kelley, D. E. (2000). Thigh adipose tissue distribution is associated with insulin resistance in obesity and in type 2 diabetes mellitus. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71 (4), 885-892.

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