New York Physical Therapy Ebook Continuing Education

Conclusion Differential diagnosis is a critical part of the initial assessment of physical therapy clients. With direct access to physical therapy services, clinicians must be aware of potential systemic and viscerogenic conditions that might explain the client’s symptoms. Although infrequent, these situations can be serious and may necessitate referral to another healthcare provider. Adams, L. M., & Turk, D. C. (2015). Psychosocial factors and central sensitivity syndromes. Current rheumatology reviews , 11 (2), 96-108. https://doi.org/10.2174/1573397111666150 619095330 Š Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. (1994). Acute low back problems in adults: Assessment and treatment. Clinical Practice Guideline: Quick Reference Guide for Clinicians, 14, iii-25. Š Ahuja, V., Yencha, M. W., & Lassen, L. F. (1999). Head and neck manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease. American Family Physician , 60 (3), 873-886. Š Akaishi, T., Kobayashi, J., Abe, M., Ishizawa, K., Nakashima, I., Aoki, M., & Ishii, T. (2019). Sensitivity and specificity of meningeal signs in patients with meningitis. Journal of general and family medicine , 20 (5), 193-198. https://doi.org/10.1002/jgf2.268 Š References Š Akhavan, N. N., Brar, T. S., & Maska, E. (2017) Lung adenocarcinoma presenting as worsening of chronic neck pain: A cautionary tale. Clinical Medicine Insights: Case reports 1-3. doi: 10.1177/1179547617691040 Š Aliprandi, A., Borelli, P., Polonia, V., & Salmaggi, A. (2020). Headache in cerebral venous thrombosis. Neurological sciences: Official Journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology , 41 (Suppl 2), 401-406. https://doi. org/10.1007/s10072-020-04784-w Š Altitude Sickness: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention . (n.d.). Cleveland Clinic. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/15111-altitude-sickness Š Anarte, E., Ferreira Carvalho, G., Schwarz, A., Luedtke, K., & Falla, D. (2019). Can physical testing be used to distinguish between migraine and cervicogenic headache sufferers? A protocol for a systematic review. BMJ Open , 9 (11), e031587. https://doi.org/10.1136/ bmjopen-2019-031587 Š Anarte-Lazo, E., Carvalho, G. F., Schwarz, A. et al. (2021). Differentiating migraine, cervicogenic headache and asymptomatic individuals based on physical examination findings: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 22 , 755. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04595-w Š Angina - Symptoms and causes . (2022, March 30). Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/ diseases-conditions/angina/symptoms-causes/syc-20369373 Š Arendt-Nielsen, L., Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, C., & Graven-Nielsen, T. (2011). Basic aspects of musculoskeletal pain: From acute to chronic pain. The Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy , 19 (4), 186-193. https://doi.org/10.1179/106698111X13129729551903 Š Balthillaya, G. M., Parsekar, S. S., Gangavelli, R., Prabhu, N., Bhat, S. N., & Rao, B. K. (2022). Effectiveness of posture-correction interventions for mechanical neck pain and posture among people with forward head posture: Protocol for a systematic review. BMJ Open , 12 (3), e054691. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-054691 Š Barbiani, D., Camerone, E., & Benedetti, F. (2018). What is the relative contribution of biological and psychosocial factors to the generation of hypoxia headache? Canadian Journal of Pain (Revue canadienne de la douleur) , 2 (1), 160-168. https://doi.org/10.1080/24 740527.2018.1478224 Š Beeharry, M. W., Moqeem, K., & Rohilla, M. U. (2021). Management of cervical spine fractures: A literature review. Cureus , 13 (4), e14418. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.14418 Š Bigal, M. E., & Lipton, R. B. (2007). The differential diagnosis of chronic daily headaches: An algorithm-based approach. The Journal of Headache and Pain , 8 (5), 263-272. https://doi. org/10.1007/s10194-007-0418-3 Š Boissonnault, W. G., & Bass, C. (1990). Pathological origins of trunk and neck pain: Part II. Disorders of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy , 12 (5), 208-215. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.1990.12.5.208 Š Bolay, H., Gül, A., & Baykan, B. (2020). COVID-19 is a Real Headache! Headache , 60 (7), 1415-1421. https://doi.org/10.1111/head.13856 Š Bone metastasis - Symptoms and causes . (2022b, April 27). Mayo Clinic. https://www. mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bone-metastasis/symptoms-causes/syc-20370191 Š Bordoni, B., & Varacallo, M. (2022, January). Anatomy: head and neck, scalenus muscle. StatPearls . https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519058/ Š Bravo Petersen, S. M., & Vardaxis, V. G. (2015). The flexion-rotation test performed actively and passively: A comparison of range of motion in patients with cervicogenic headache. The Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy , 23 (2), 61-67. https://doi.org/10.1179/2042 618614Y.0000000085 Š Byun, S. H., Min, C., Yoo, D. M., Yang, B. E., & Choi, H. G. (2020). Increased risk of migraine in patients with temporomandibular disorder: A longitudinal follow-up study using a national health screening cohort. Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland) , 10 (9), 724. https://doi. org/10.3390/diagnostics10090724 Š Calvo-Romero J. M. (2003). Giant cell arteritis. Postgraduate Medical Journal , 79 (935), 511- 515. https://doi.org/10.1136/pmj.79.935.511 Š Caponnetto, V., Deodato, M., Robotti, M., Koutsokera, M., Pozzilli, V., Galati, C., Nocera, G., De Matteis, E., De Vanna, G., Fellini, E., Halili, G., Martinelli, D., Nalli, G., Serratore, S., Tramacere, I., Martelletti, P., Raggi, A., & European Headache Federation School of Advanced Studies (EHF-SAS) (2021). Comorbidities of primary headache disorders: A literature review with meta-analysis. The Journal of Headache And Pain , 22 (1), 71. https:// doi.org/10.1186/s10194-021-01281-z Š Carvalho, A. D., Figueiredo, J., Schroeder, G. D., Vaccaro, A. R., & Rodrigues-Pinto, R. (2019). Odontoid fractures: A critical review of current management and future directions. Clinical Spine Surgery , 32 (8), 313-323. https://doi.org/10.1097/BSD.0000000000000872 Š Carvalho, G. F., Schwarz, A., Szikszay, T. M., Adamczyk, W. M., Bevilaqua-Grossi, D., & Luedtke, K. (2020). Physical therapy and migraine: Musculoskeletal and balance dysfunctions and their relevance for clinical practice. Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy , 24 (4), 306-317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjpt.2019.11.001 Š Carvallaro Goodman, C., Heick, J., & Lazaro, R. T. (2018). Differential diagnosis for physical therapists: screening for referral (6th ed.). Elsevier. Š Cervical Anatomy . (n.d.). Physiopedia. https://www.physio-pedia.com/Cervical_Anatomy Š Childress, M. A., & Becker, B. A. (2016). Nonoperative management of cervical radiculopathy. American Family Physician , 93 (9), 746-754. Š Cho, S. J., Song, T. J., & Chu, M. K. (2019). Sleep and tension-type headache. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports , 19 (7), 44. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11910-019-0953-8 Š Common Cold: Symptoms, Cold vs. Flu, How Long It Lasts, Treatment . (n.d.-b). Cleveland Clinic. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/12342-common-cold Š Cook, C., Roman, M., Stewart, K. M., Leithe, L. G., & Isaacs, R. (2009). Reliability and diagnostic accuracy of clinical special tests for myelopathy in patients seen for cervical dysfunction. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy , 39 (3), 172-178. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2009.2938 Š Cook, C. E., George, S. Z., & Reiman, M. P. (2018). Red flag screening for low back pain: Nothing to see here, move along. A narrative review. British Journal of Sports Medicine , 52 (8), 493-496. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-098352 Š Cooper, G., Bailey, B., & Bogduk, N. (2007). Cervical zygapophysial joint pain maps. Pain Medicine (Malden, Mass.) , 8 (4), 344-353. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-4637.2006.00201.x Š Cote, R., Vietas, C., Kolakowski, M., Lombardo, K., Prete, J., & Dashottar, A. (2021). Inter- and intra-rater reliability of measuring photometric craniovertebral angle using a cloud- based video communication platform. International Journal of Telerehabilitation , 13 (1), e6346. https://doi.org/10.5195/ijt.2021.6346 Š Dale, P. C., Thomas, J. C., & Hazle, C. R. (2020). Physical therapist clinical reasoning and classification inconsistencies in headache disorders: A United States survey. The Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy , 28 (1), 28-40. https://doi.org/10.1080/10669817.2019.16 45414 Š Davies, B. M., Mowforth, O. D., Smith, E. K., & Kotter, M. R. (2018). Degenerative cervical myelopathy. BMJ , k186. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k186 Š de Almeida Tolentino, G., Lima Florencio, L., Ferreira Pinheiro, C., et al. (2021). Effects of combining manual therapy, neck muscle exercises, and therapeutic pain neuroscience education in patients with migraine: A study protocol for a randomized clinical trial. BMC Neurologyl, 21 , 249. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12883-021-02290-w Š de Coo, I. F., Naber, W. C., Wilbrink, L. A., Haan, J., Ferrari, M. D., & Fronczek, R. (2019). Increased use of illicit drugs in a Dutch cluster headache population. Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache , 39 (5), 626–634. https://doi. org/10.1177/0333102418804160 Š Di Paolo, C., D'Urso, A., Papi, P., Di Sabato, F., Rosella, D., Pompa, G., & Polimeni, A. (2017). Temporomandibular disorders and headache: A retrospective analysis of 1198 patients. Pain Research & Management , 3203027. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3203027 Š Do, T. P., Remmers, A., Schytz, H. W., Schankin, C., Nelson, S. E., Obermann, M., Hansen, J. M., Sinclair, A. J., Gantenbein, A. R., & Schoonman, G. G. (2019). Red and orange flags for secondary headaches in clinical practice: SNNOOP10 list. Neurology , 92 (3), 134-144. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000006697 Š Eigenbrodt, A. K., Ashina, H., Khan, S., Diener, H. C., Mitsikostas, D. D., Sinclair, A. J., Pozo-Rosich, P., Martelletti, P., Ducros, A., Lantéri-Minet, M., Braschinsky, M., Del Rio, M. S., Daniel, O., Özge, A., Mammadbayli, A., Arons, M., Skorobogatykh, K., Romanenko,

Once systemic and viscerogenic origins of cervical pain are eliminated, the assessing clinician can confidentially proceed with assignation of the appropriate diagnosis. This, in turn, helps determine the most effective plan of care so that the physical therapist can effectively treat the client’s presenting symptoms.

V., Terwindt, G. M., Paemeleire, K., … Ashina, M. (2021). Diagnosis and management of migraine in ten steps. Nature Reviews: Neurology , 17 (8), 501-514. https://doi.org/10.1038/ s41582-021-00509-5 Š Espinosa Jovel CA, Sobrino Mejia FE. Caffeine and headaches: specific remarks. Neurologia. 32(6). July-August 2017, 394-398. Š Evangelatos, G., & Iliopoulos, A. (2017). Headache in patients with Paget's disease of bones. Journal of Frailty, Sarcopenia and Falls , 2 (2), 16-20. Š Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, C., Florencio, L. L., Plaza-Manzano, G., & Arias-Buría, J. L. (2020). Clinical reasoning behind non-pharmacological interventions for the management of headaches: A narrative literature review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 17 (11), 4126. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114126 Š Fernando, S. M., & Perry, J. J. (2017). Subarachnoid hemorrhage. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal (journal de l'Association medicale Canadienne) , 189 (46), E1421. https:// doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.170893 Š Filatova, E., Latysheva, N., & Kurenkov, A. (2008). Evidence of persistent central sensitization in chronic headaches: A multi-method study. The Journal of Headache and Pain , 9 (5), 295- 300. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10194-008-0061-7 Š Flynn, T., Cleland, J. A., & Whitman, J. M. (2016). User’s guide to the musculoskeletal examination: Fundamentals for the evidence-based clinician. Louisville, KY: Evidence in Motion. Š Focal neurologic deficits . (n.d.). https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003191.htm Š Forbes, J., & Cronovich, H. (2022, January). Romberg test. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/books/NBK563187/ Š Garg, B., & Ahuja, K. (2021). C-spine clearance in poly-trauma patients: A narrative review. Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma , 12 (1), 66-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jcot.2020.10.020 Š Gembruch, O., Lemonas, E., Ahmadipour, Y., Sure, U., El Hindy, N., Dodel, R., & Müller, O. (2019). Treatment of odontoid type II fractures in octogenarians: Balancing two different treatment strategies. Neurospine , 16 (2), 360-367. https://doi.org/10.14245/ns.1836250.125 Š George, S. Z., Beneciuk, J. M., Lentz, T. A., Wu, S. S., Dai, Y., Bialosky, J. E., & Zeppieri, G., Jr. (2018). Optimal screening for prediction of referral and outcome (OSPRO) for musculoskeletal pain conditions: Results from the validation cohort. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy , 48 (6), 460-475. https://doi.org/10.2519/ jospt.2018.7811 Š Getsoian, S. L., Gulati, S. M., Okpareke, I., Nee, R. J., & Jull, G. A. (2020). Validation of a clinical examination to differentiate a cervicogenic source of headache: A diagnostic prediction model using controlled diagnostic blocks. BMJ Open , 10 (5), e035245. https:// doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-035245 Š Gibson, J., Nouri, A., Krueger, B., Lakomkin, N., Nasser, R., Gimbel, D., & Cheng, J. (2018). Degenerative cervical myelopathy: A clinical review. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine , 91 (1), 43-48. Š Gillick, J. L., Wainwright, J., & Das, K. (2015). Rheumatoid arthritis and the cervical spine: A review on the role of surgery. International Journal of Rheumatology , 2015 , 252456. https:// doi.org/10.1155/2015/252456 Š Glen, S. (n.d.). Likelihood ratio (medicine): asic definition, interpretation. StatisticsHowTo. com: Elementary Statistics for the Rest of Us! https://www.statisticshowto.com/likelihoo- ratio/ Š Gonschorek, O., Vordemvenne, T., Blattert, T., Katscher, S., Schnake, K. J., & Spine Section of the German Society for Orthopaedics and Trauma. (2018). Treatment of odontoid fractures: Recommendations of the Spine Section of the German Society for Orthopaedics and Trauma (DGOU). Global Spine Journal , 8 (2 Suppl), 12S-17S. https://doi. org/10.1177/2192568218768227 Š Hainer, B. L., & Matheson, E. M. (2013). Approach to acute headache in adults. American Family Physician , 87 (10), 682-687. Š Hall, T., Briffa, K., & Hopper, D. (2008). Clinical evaluation of cervicogenic headache: A clinical perspective. The Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy , 16 (2), 73-80. https:// doi.org/10.1179/106698108790818422 Š Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome - Symptoms and causes . (2022, January 7). Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hantavirus-pulmonary-syndrome/ symptoms-causes/syc-20351838 Š Hatzenbuehler, J., & Pulling, T. J. (2011). Diagnosis and management of osteomyelitis. American Family Physician , 84 (9), 1027-1033. Š Hayashi, K., Miki, K., Ikemoto, T., Ushida, T., & Shibata, M. (2019). Factors influencing outcomes among patients with whiplash-associated disorder: A population-based study in Japan. PloS One , 14 (5), e0216857. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0216857 Š Hayreh, S. S. (2021). Giant cell arteritis: Its ophthalmic manifestations. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 69 (2), 227-235. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_1681_20 Š Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS). (2018). The international classification of headache disorders (3rd ed.). Cephalalgia: An International Journal if Headache , 38 (1), 1-211. https://doi.org/10.1177/0333102417738202 Š Heick, J., & Lazaro, R. T. (2023). Goodman and Snyder’s differential diagnosis for physical therapists: screening for referral (7th ed.). Elsevier. Š Hidalgo, B., Hall, T., Bossert, J., Dugeny, A., Cagnie, B., & Pitance, L. (2017). The efficacy of manual therapy and exercise for treating non-specific neck pain: A systematic review. Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation , 30 (6), 1149-1169. https://doi. org/10.3233/BMR-169615 Š Hilton, B., Gardner, E. L., Jiang, Z., Tetreault, L., Wilson, J., Zipser, C. M., Riew, K. D., Guest, J. D., Harrop, J. S., Fehlings, M. G., Rodrigues-Pinto, R., Rahimi-Movaghar, V., Aarabi, B., Koljonen, P. A., Kotter, M., Davies, B. M., & Kwon, B. K. (2022). Establishing diagnostic criteria for degenerative cervical myelopathy (AO Spine RECODE-DCM Research Priority Number 3). Global Spine Journal , 12 (1Suppl), 55S-63S. https://doi. org/10.1177/21925682211030871 Š Hoy, D., March, L., Woolf, A., Blyth, F., Brooks, P., Smith, E., Vos, T., Barendregt, J., Blore, J., Murray, C., Burstein, R., & Buchbinder, R. (2014). The global burden of neck pain: Estimates from the global burden of disease 2010 study. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases , 73 (7), 1309-1315. https://doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-204431 Š Hurley, R. W., Adams, M., Barad, M., Bhaskar, A., Bhatia, A., Chadwick, A., Deer, T. R., Hah, J., Hooten, W. M., Kissoon, N. R., Lee, D. W., Mccormick, Z., Moon, J. Y., Narouze, S., Provenzano, D. A., Schneider, B. J., van Eerd, M., Van Zundert, J., Wallace, M. S., Wilson, S. M., … Cohen, S. P. (2022). Consensus practice guidelines on interventions for cervical spine (facet) joint pain from a multispecialty international working group. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine , 47 (1), 3-59. https://doi.org/10.1136/rapm-2021-103031 Š Inan, N., & Ateş, Y. (2005). Cervicogenic headache: Pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria and treatment. Agri: Agri (Algoloji) Dernegi'nin Yayin organidir (The journal of the Turkish Society of Algology) , 17 (4), 23-30. Š Jiang, W., Li, Z., Wei, N., Chang, W., Chen, W., & Sui, H. J. (2019). Effectiveness of physical therapy on the suboccipital area of patients with tension-type headache: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Medicine , 98 (19), e15487. https://doi.org/10.1097/ MD.0000000000015487 Š Joshi, S., Balthillaya, G., & Neelapala, Y. (2019). 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