Georgia Cosmetology Ebook Continuing Education

This interactive Florida Cosmetology Ebook contains 10 hours of continuing education. To complete click the Complete Your CE button at the top right of the screen.

GEORGIA 2023 Cosmetology Continuing Education

Elite Learning

THIS BOOK INCLUDES THE MANDATORY GEORGIA HEALTH & SAFETY COURSE

ELITELEARNING.COM/BOOK Complete this book online with book code: CGA0523 5-hour Continuing Education Package $14.95

WHAT’S INSIDE

Chapter 1: Georgia TCSG Health and Safety (Mandatory) [3 CE Hours]

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Understanding that normal skin is composed of keratin, slightly acidic in pH, and is waterproof will help in learning the histology of skin disease and disorders. Chapter 2: Eyelash Mania [2 CE Hours] This course will outline the preparation, cleansing and safety of eyelash enhancements. Additionally, this course will discuss the equipment, supplies and materials used in eyelash enhancements, as well as review cleaning and sanitation concepts. Final Examination Answer Sheet

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©2023: All Rights Reserved. Materials may not be reproduced without the expressed written permission or consent of Colibri Healthcare, LLC. The materials presented in this course are meant to provide the consumer with general information on the topics covered. The information provided was prepared by professionals with practical knowledge in the areas covered. It is not meant to provide medical, legal or professional services advice. Colibri Healthcare, LLC recommends that you consult a medical, legal or professional services expert licensed in your state. Colibri Healthcare, LLC has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that all content provided in this course is accurate and up to date at the time of printing, but does not represent or warrant that it will apply to your situation or circumstances and assumes no liability from reliance on these materials.

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COSMETOLOGY CONTINUING EDUCATION

Book Code: CGA0523

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

What are the requirements for license renewal? Licenses Expire

CE Hours

Mandatory Subjects

5 (All hours are allowed through home-study).

3 hours of Georgia Health and Safety

Cosmetologists expire on 3/31 of the even year.

How much will it cost?

Course Title

CE Hours

Price

Georgia TCSG Health and Safety (Mandatory)

3

$15.00

Eyelash Mania

2

$10.00

Best Value - Save $10.05 - All 5 Hours

5

$14.95

How do I complete this course and receive my certificate of completion? See the following page for step by step instructions to complete and receive your certificate.

Are you a Georgia board-approved provider? Yes. Colibri Healthcare, LLC is an approved provider by the Georgia State Board of Cosmetology and Barbers to offer CE for Georgia Salon Professionals. Our provider number is CEP-000133.

Are my credit hours reported to the Georgia board? No. The board performs random audits at which time proof of continuing education must be provided.

What information do I need to provide for course completion and certificate issuance? Please provide your license number on the test sheet to receive course credit. Your state may require additional information such as date of birth and/or last 4 of Social Security number; please provide these, if applicable.

Is my information secure? Yes! We use SSL encryption, and we never share your information with third- parties. We are also rated A+ by the National Better Business Bureau.

Important information for licensees: Always check your state’s board website to determine the number of hours required for renewal, mandatory subjects (as these are subject to change), and the amount that may be completed through home-study. Also, make sure that you notify the board of any changes of address. It is important that your most current address is on file.

What if I still have questions? What are your business hours? No problem, we have several options for you to choose from! Online at EliteLearning.com/Cosmetology you will see our robust FAQ section that answers many of your questions, simply click FAQs at the top of the page, e-mail us at office@elitelearning.com, or call us toll free at 1-866-344-0970, Monday - Friday 9:00 am - 6:00 pm, EST.

Licensing board contact information: Georgia State Board of Cosmetology | 214 State Capito,l Atlanta, GA 30334 Phone: (404) 424-996 | Fax: (404) 656-0513 Website: https://sos.ga.gov/georgia-state-board-cosmetology-and-barbers

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Book Code: CGA0523

COSMETOLOGY CONTINUING EDUCATION

Please read these instructions before proceeding. Read and study the enclosed courses and answer the final examination questions. To receive credit for your courses, you must provide your customer information and complete the evaluation. We offer three ways for you to complete. Choose an option below to receive credit and your certificates of completion. How to complete continuing education

Fastest way to receive your certificate of completion

Online • Go to EliteLearning.com/Book . Use the book code CGA0523 and enter it in the example box that pops up then click GO . • If you already have an account created, sign in to your account with your username and password. If you do not have an account already created, you will need to create one now. • Follow the online instructions to complete your final exam. Complete the purchase process to receive course credit and your certificate of completion. Please remember to complete the online survey. By mail • Fill out the answer sheet and evaluation found in the back of this booklet. Please include a check or credit card information and e-mail address. Mail to Elite, PO Box 37, Ormond Beach, FL 32175 . • Completions will be processed within 2 business days from the date it is received and certificates will be e-mailed to the address provided. • Submissions without a valid e-mail will be mailed to the address provided.

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By fax • Fill out the answer sheet and evaluation found in the back of this booklet. Please include credit card information and e-mail address. Fax to (386) 673-3563 . • All completions will be processed within 2 business days of receipt and certificates e-mailed to the address provided. • Submissions without a valid e-mail will be mailed to the address provided.

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COSMETOLOGY CONTINUING EDUCATION

Book Code: CGA0523

Chapter 1: Georgia TCSG Health and Safety (Mandatory) 3 CE Hours

Copyright ©October 2002-2015 State of Georgia All rights reserved. No part of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the Technical College System of Georgia.

Developed for the Georgia State Board of Cosmetology and the Georgia State Barber Board by the Technical College System of Georgia Formerly the Georgia Department of Technical and Adult Education (DTAE) Publication #C121002, Published December 2002, Revised November 2008.

Table of contents Section 1: Skin, Diseases, Disorders ● Anatomy and Histology of the Skin:

● Transmission Routes. ● Risk Factors and Behaviors. ● Personal Protective Equipment. Section 3: Decontamination & Sterilization ● Common Questions. ● HIV. ● Precautions. Section 4: Decontamination and Infection Control ● Professional Salon Environment. ● Safety Precautions.

○ Nerves of the Skin. ○ Glands of the Skin. ○ Nourishment of the Skin. ○ Functions of the Skin. ○ Terminology. ○ Skin Conditions/Descriptions. ○ Nail Diseases/Disorders. ○ Hair Disease/Disorders. ○ Skin Conditions/Descriptions.

● Diseases and Disorders:

● Material Safety Data Sheet (M.S.D.S.). ● Organizing an M.S.D.S. Notebook. Section 5: Georgia State Board of Cosmetology Sanitary Regulations for Salons and Schools Section 6: Appendix a Georgia State Board of Cosmetology Glossary of Legal Definitions

Section 2: Bloodborne Pathogens ● What are Bloodborne Pathogens? ● Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). ● Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). ● Signs and Symptoms. ● Transmission. Table of contents ● Skin, disease, disorders: ○ Introduction. ○ Objectives. ● Anatomy and histology of the skin:

SECTION 1: SKIN, DISEASES, DISORDERS

○ Nourishment of the Skin. ○ Functions of the Skin. ○ Terminology.

● Diseases and disorders:

○ Nerves of the Skin. ○ Glands of the Skin.

○ Skin Conditions/Descriptions.

Introduction The flexible, waterproof, tough protective covering known as the skin is the largest organ in the body both by weight and surface area. Skin accounts for approximately 16% of the body’s weight. Healthy skin has a fine texture that is slightly moist, soft, and flexible. Varying in thickness, the skin is thinnest on the eyelids and thickest on the palms and soles. A callous can be caused by continuous friction on any part of the skin.

The skin has appendages that include the hair, sweat and oil glands, and the nails. Composed of the substance known as keratin , this protein gives the skin its protective ability. The skin is slightly acidic in pH, which enables good immunity responses to intruding organisms. Normally the skin separates the internal environment from the external. However skin diseases and infections can invade that barrier. For this reason, a thorough understanding of the histology of the skin and its diseases and disorders is needed for a better position to give clients professional advice.

Learning objectives Upon completion of this course, trainees will be able to: Š Explain the structure and the composition of the skin. Š Identify the functions of the skin. Š Describe terms relating to skin disorders.

Š Recognize which skin diseases/disorders may be dealt with in the salon and which should be referred to a physician. Š Identify online dermatology resources.

ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY OF THE SKIN

The two major divisions of the skin are the dermis and the epidermis. The outermost layer of the skin is the epidermis that is composed of sheets of dead cells that serve as the major waterproof barrier to the environment. The epidermis is the visible layer of skin. This layer contains numerous nerve endings, but no blood vessels. The human epidermis is renewed every 15-30 days.

The epidermis consists of many layers. The stratum corneum is the outer layer that is often called the horny layer . Cells are continually being shed and replaced. This layer of skin for the most part is dead – it is composed of cells that are almost pure protein. The stratum lucidum consists of translucent cells through which light can penetrate.

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The stratum granulosum, known as the granular layer , consists of cells that resemble granules. These cells are transforming into a harder form of protein. The stratum mucosum is also known as the basal cell layer . Basal cells are continuously being reproduced. It is the deepest layer of the epidermis. This layer also contains melanocytes that produce the coloring matter known as melanin and determines skin color. Melanocytes also react to ultraviolet rays to darken the skin for added protection. The middle layer, the dermis, provides a tough, flexible foundation for the epidermis. In the dermis, body temperature is regulated by sweat glands and blood vessels. It also contains arector pilli muscles, papillae, and hair follicles. Nerve endings send sensations of pain, itching, touch, and temperature to the brain. The skin is moisturized by oil glands that produce sebum. The dermis consists of two layers. The papillary layer connects the dermis to the epidermis. Tactile corpuscles are nerve fiber endings that contain looped capillaries. Tactile corpuscles are responsible for the sense of touch. The papillary layer also contains some of the melanin. The reticular layer is the deepest layer of the dermis. It contains fat cells, blood vessels, lymph vessels, oil glands, sweat glands, hair follicles, and arrector pilli muscles. The reticular layer supplies the skin with oxygen and nutrients. Nerves of the skin Sensory nerves are receptors and send messages to the brain causing reactions to heat, cold, touch, pressure, and pain. Motor nerve fibers, attached to the hair follicles, are distributed to the arrector pilli muscles which may cause goose flesh when you are frightened or cold. Glands of the skin There are two types of duct glands contained in the skin that pull out minerals from the blood to create new substances. The suderiferous glands are the sweat glands and the sebaceous glands are the oil glands. Sweat glands excrete perspiration. This secretion is odorless when excreted, but in a short period of time produces an offensive odor due to the bacteria on the skin’s surface feeding on the fats of its secretion. Perspiration is controlled by the nervous system. About 1-2 pints of liquid containing salts are excreted daily through the sweat pores in the skin. The sweat glands consist of a coiled base or fundus and a tube-like duct Nourishment of the skin Blood and lymph circulate through the skin providing nourishment essential for growth and repair of the skin, hair, and nails. Functions of the skin The major functions of the skin are sensation, heat regulation, absorption, protection, excretion, and secretion. The functions of the skin can easily be remembered using the acronym SHAPES: ● S ENSATION: Response to heat, cold, pressure, and pain. ● H EAT REGULATION : Maintains body temperature of 98.6. Terminology ● Acute : Rapid onset with severe symptoms of short duration. ● Allergy : Reaction due to extreme sensitivity to normally harmless substances. ● Blepharoplasty : Eyelid surgery. ● Chemical peel : Chemical solution applied to skin areas causing a mild, controlled burn of the skin. ● Chronic : Long duration, usually mild, but often recurring. ● Contagious : Communicable; by contact. ● Dermabrasion : Sandblasting irregularities of the skin. ● Dermatologist : A medical skin specialist. ● Dermatology : Study of the skin, its nature, functions, and treatment. ● Diagnosis : Recognition of a disease by its symptoms.

Subcutaneous tissue is the fatty layer found below the dermis. It is also called the adipose or the subcutis tissue. It varies in thickness according to age, sex, and general health of the individual. The subcutaneous tissue contains fats for energy, gives smoothness and contour to the body, and acts as a protective cushion for the outer skin. Arteries and lymphatics maintain circulation to the body.

The secretory nerve fibers regulate the excretion of perspiration from the sweat glands and regulate the flow of sebum to the surface of the skin.

that ends at the skin surface forming the pores. Sweat glands are more numerous on the palms, soles, forehead, and armpits. Body temperature is regulated by the sweat glands that also aid in the elimination of waste. Oil glands secrete sebum through little sacs whose ducts open in to the hair follicles. These glands are found in all parts of the body with the exception of the palms and soles. The oily substance produced by the oil glands is called sebum . Sebum lubricates the skin and preserves the pliability of the hair. When the duct becomes clogged with hardened sebum, a blackhead is formed.

● A BSORPTION: Substances can enter the body through the skin and affect it to a minor degree. ● P ROTECTION: From bacterial invasion. ● E XCRETION: Sweat glands excrete perspiration. ● S ECRETION: Sebum is secreted by the sebaceous glands. ● Disease : A pathological condition of the body, organ, or mind making it incapable of carrying on normal functions. ● Disorder : Abnormal condition usually not contagious. ● Epidemic : Emergence of a disease that affects a large number of people simultaneously. ● Etiology : Study of the causes of diseases. ● Immunity : Freedom from or resistance to disease. ● Infectious : Invasion of body tissue by bacteria that cause disease. ● Inflammation : Skin disorder characterized by redness, pain, edema, and heat. ● Injectable fillers : Tiny injections of collagen to soften wrinkles.

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● Integumentary system : One of the 10 systems of the body; pertains to the skin, its appendages and functions. ● Mentoplasty : Chin surgery. ● Objective symptom : Visible symptom. ● Occupational : Due to certain kinds of employment. ● Parasitic : Caused by vegetable or animal parasites. ● Pathogenic : Produced by disease causing bacteria. ● Pathology : Study of disease. ● Prognosis : Foretelling of the probable course of a disease. ● Retin-A : Prescription cream used in the treatment of acne.

● Rhinoplasty : Plastic surgery of the nose. ● Rhytidectomy : Face lift. ● Seasonal : Influenced by weather. ● Subjective symptom : Symptom that can be felt by client, but not by observation. ● Systemic : Due to over or under functioning of the internal glands. ● Trichology : Study of hair. ● Venereal disease : Acquired by sexual contact.

DISEASES AND DISORDERS

In a salon, you will come in contact with diseases and disorders of the skin and its appendages: the hair and nails. Your license requires you to be responsible for the recognition of

potentially infections diseases. Some disorders can be treated in cooperation with and under the supervision of a physician.

Skin conditions/descriptions

WARNING: NEVER TRY TO DIAGNOSE A DISEASE; ALWAYS REFER TO A PHYSICIAN. NOTE : COLOR CHANGES, A CRACK ON THE SKIN, A TYPE OF THICKENING, OR ANY DISCOLORATION, RANGING FROM SHADES OF RED TO BROWN AND PURPLE TO ALMOST BLACK, MAY BE SIGNS OF DANGER AND SHOULD BE EXAMINED BY A DERMATOLOGIST. CAUTION: DO NOT TREAT OR REMOVE HAIR FROM MOLES. Condition/Disease/Disorder Description Pigmented Lesions Lentigo Small, yellow to brown spots. Chloasma Moth patches, liver spots = increased deposits of pigment. Naevus Birthmark (portwine or strawberry) small-large malformation of skin due to pigmentation or dilated capillaries. Leucoderma Abnormal light patches due to congenital defective pigmentations. Vitiligo Acquired condition of leucoderma-may affect skin or hair. Albinism Congenital absence of melanin pigment. Stain Abnormal, brown, skin patches having a circular & irregular shape. Disorders of the Sebaceous Glands Comedones Blackheads, a worm-like mass of keratinized cells & hardened sebum. Milia Whiteheads, an accumulation of dead, keratinized cells and sebaceous matter trapped beneath the skin. Acne Simplex Chronic inflammatory disorder usually related to hormonal changes & overactive sebaceous glands. Acne Vulgaris Acne-pimples. Acne Rosacea Chronic inflammatory congestion of the cheeks & nose.

Seborrhea/Seborrhea Oleosa = Oily Dandruff

Overactive sebaceous glands-often the basis of acne.

Steatoma Asteatosis Furuncle

Wen or sebaceous cyst (subcutaneous tumor) ranges in size from a pea to an orange. Dry, scaly skin characterized by absolute or partial deficiency of sebum.

Boil-a subcutaneous abscess that fills with pus.

Cysts

Sac-like, elevated (usually round) area, contains liquid or semi-liquid substance-when a follicle ruptures deep within the dermis & irritating oil & dead cells seep into the surrounding tissues often cause acne pits. Follicle filled with oil, dead cells, & bacteria inflammation causes white blood cells to rush to fight bacteria creating a pus.

Pimples

Disorders of the Sudoriferous Glands Bromidrosis

Osmidrosis=foul-smelling perspiration.

Anhidrosis

Lack of perspiration. Excessive perspiration.

Hyperhidrosis Miliaria Rubra

Prickly heat-eruptions of small red vesicles accompanied by burning & itching-caused by excessive heat.

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Condition/Disease/Disorder Description Hypertrophies Keratoma

Callus-superficial, round, thickening of the epidermis caused by friction (inward growth is called a corn ). A small, brown spot-believed to be inherited may be flat or deeply seated-pale tan-brown or bluish black.

Mole

Verruca Skin Tag

Wart, a viral infection of the epidermis-benign.

Bead-like fibrous tissue that stands away from the flat surface-often a dark color. Growth that extends from the surface or may also grow with the body.

Polyp

Inflammations Eczema

Dry or moist lesions accompanied by itching, burning, & various other unpleasant sensations usually red-blistered, & oozing. Rarely on the face, lesions are round, dry patches covered with coarse, silvery scales-if irritated, bleeding points occur-may be spread to larger area-not contagious.

Psoriasis

Herpes Simplex/Herpes Zoster = Shingles Allergy Related Dermatitis Dermatitis Venenata

Fever blisters/cold sores-single group of vesicles on a red swollen base.

Allergy to ingredients in cosmetics, etc., protection is the prevention-gloves, etc.

Dermatitis Medicamentosa Dermatitis that occurs after an injection of a substance. Urticaria

Hives-inflammation caused by an allergy to specific drugs/foods.

Primary Skin Lesions Macule

Small, discolored spot or patch on the skin’s surface, neither raised nor sunken-ex: freckles. Small elevated pimple containing no fluid, but may have pus. Note : Yellow or white fatty papules around the eyes indicate an elevated cholesterol level-refer to a physician (xanthelasma).

Papule

Wheal

Itchy, swollen lesion that lasts only a few hours ex: mosquito bite.

Tubercle

Solid lump larger than a papule-projects above the skin or lies with-sized from pea to hickory nut.

Tumor Vesicle

External swelling-varies in size, shape & color.

Blister with clear fluid-lie within or just beneath the epidermis-ex: poison ivy.

Bulla

Blister containing a watery fluid-larger than a vesicle. Elevation with inflamed base, containing pus.

Pustule

Secondary Skin Lesions Scale

Accumulation of epidermal flakes, dry or greasy - ex: abnormal dandruff. Accumulation of serum & pus-mixed with epidermal material - ex: scab. Abrasion produced by scratching or scraping - ex: raw surface after injury.

Crust

Excoriation

Fissure

Crack in the skin penetrating into the dermis.

Ulcer

Open lesion on skin or mucous membrane, accompanied by pus & loss of skin depth.

Acne Scars Ice Pick Scar

Large, visible, open pores that look as if the skin has been jabbed with an ice pick-follicle always looks open-caused by deep pimple or cyst. Slightly sunken or depressed appearance-caused by pimples/cysts that have destroyed the skin & formed scar tissue. Lumpy mass of raised tissue on the surface of the skin-caused where cysts have clumped together.

Acne Pit Scar

Acne Raised Scar

Contagious Disorders • Tinea. • Tinea Capitis - Ringworm of Scalp. • Tinea Sycosis - Barber’s Itch. • Tinea Favosa - Honeycomb Ringworm. • Tinea Unguium - Ringworm of Nails. • Athlete’s Foot - Ringworm of Feet.

Ringworm, due to fungi (plant or vegetable parasites) -small reddened patch of little blisters that spread outward and heal in the middle with scaling.

CAUTION ! NEVER ATTEMPT TO DIAGNOSE BUMPS, LESIONS, ULCERATIONS, OR DISCOLORATIONS AS SKIN CANCER, BUT YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SERIOUS SKIN DISORDERS AND SUGGEST THAT THE CLIENT SEE A PHYSICIAN OR DERMATOLOGIST.

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Condition/Disease/Disorder Description Extremely Serious Disorders-Skin Cancers Basal Cell Carcinoma

Least malignant-most common skin cancer characterized by light or pearly nodules & visible blood vessels. Scaly, red papules-blood vessels are not visible more serious than basal cell. Most serious-characterized by dark brown, black, or discolored patches on the skin.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Malignant Melanoma

Tumor

Abnormal growth of swollen tissue.

Nail diseases/disorders Condition/Disease/Disorder Description Onychophagy Nail biting. Onychogryposis

Overcurvature of the nail-clawlike. Sticky overgrowth of the cuticle.

Pterygium

Eggshell Nail Leuconychia

Extremely thin nail.

White spots under the nail plate.

Paronychia

Bacterial inflammation of tissue (perionychium) around the nail.

Tinea Corporis

Ringworm of the hand. Ringworm of the foot.

Tinea Pedia

Agnail

Hangnail.

Onychia

An inflammation somewhere in the nail. Blue nail (usually caused by poor circulation).

Onychocyanosis Hematoma Nail Tinea Unguium Onychorrexis

Bruised nail (usually caused by a hammer or slammed door).

Onychomycosis-ringworm of the nail.

Split or brittle nails with a series of lengthwise ridges.

Beau’s Lines

Ridges/corrugations/furrows.

Onychatrophia Onychocryptosis

Atrophy or wasting away of the nail.

Ingrown nail.

Onychauxis Onychosis

Overgrowth of the nail plate.

Any nail disease.

Onychophosis

Accumulation of horny layers of epidermis under the nail.

Hair disease/disorders Condition/Disease/Disorder Description Pityriasis Capitis Simplex Dry dandruff.

Pityriasis Capitis Steatoids Seborrhea Oleosa = Oily Dandruff

Greasy dandruff.

Trichoptilosis

Split hair ends.

Trichorrehexis Nodosa

Knotted.

Tinea Favosa Tinea Capitis Tinea Sycosis

Honeycomb ringworm. Ringworm of the scalp.

Barber’s itch.

Androgenetic Alopecia Alopecia Adnata Alopecia Areata Alopecia Follicularis Alopecia Prematura

Common hereditary hair loss. Loss of hair shortly after birth.

Hair loss in patches.

Hair loss caused by inflammation of hair follicles.

Hair loss early in life. Hair loss from old age. Hair loss from entire scalp.

Alopecia Senilis Alopecia Totalis

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Condition/Disease/Disorder Description Alopecia Universalis

Hair loss from entire body. Traction/Traumatic Alopecia Patchy hair loss sometimes due to repetitive traction on the hair by pulling or twisting. Postpartum Alopecia Temporary hair loss at the conclusion of pregnancy. Telogen Effluven Hair loss during the telogen phase of the hair growth cycle. Canities Gray hair. Pediculosis Capitis Head lice. Monilithrix Beaded hair. Fragilitis Crinium Brittle hair. Hirsuities/Hypertrichosis Superfluous hair, excessive. Scabies Contagious disease caused by the itch mite. Impetigo/Infantigo Highly contagious bacterial infection, usually staphylococcal. Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) Chronic autoimmune disorder, causes red often scarring plaques, hair loss, & internal effects. Keloids Forms when excess collagen forms at the site of a healing scar-overhealing. Asteatosis Excessive dry skin. Websites: Online Dermatology Resources ● http://tray.dermatology.uiowa.edu/DermImag.htm ● http://www.medic.mie-u.ac.jp/derma/world/worldd1.htm

● http://www.i-wrinkle.com/ ● http://www.i-wrinkle.com/ ● http://www.asds-net.org American Society of Dermatologic Surgery ● http://www.aad.org American Academy of Dermatology

● http://ww.skin-disease.com/ ● http://www.skin-cancers.net/ ● http://www.age-spot.com/

SKIN CONDITIONS/DESCRIPTIONS WARNING: NEVER TRY TO DIAGNOSE A DISEASE; ALWAYS REFER TO A PHYSICIAN.

NOTE : COLOR CHANGES, A CRACK ON THE SKIN, A TYPE OF THICKENING, OR ANY DISCOLORATION, RANGING FROM SHADES OF RED TO BROWN AND PURPLE TO ALMOST BLACK, MAY BE SIGNS OF DANGER AND SHOULD BE EXAMINED BY A DERMATOLOGIST. CAUTION: DO NOT TREAT OR REMOVE HAIR FROM MOLES. PIGMENTED LESIONS Condition/ Disease/Disorder Description Lentigo Small, yellow to brown spots. Vitiligo Acquired condition of leucoderma – may affect skin or hair.

Albinism

Congenital absence of melanin pigment.

Stain

Abnormal, brown, skin patches having a circular and irregular shape.

DISORDERS OF THE SEBACEOUS GLANDS

Chloasma

Moth patches, liver spots: Increased deposits of pigment.

Condition/ Disease/Disorder Description Comedones Blackheads, a worm-like mass of keratinized cells and hardened sebum.

Naevus

Birthmark (portwine or strawberry) small-large malformation of skin due to pigmentation or dilated capillaries.

Leucoderma

Abnormal light patches due to congenital defective pigmentations.

Milia

Whiteheads, an accumulation of dead, keratinized cells and sebaceous matter trapped beneath the skin.

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Acne simplex Chronic inflammatory disorder usually

DISORDERS OF THE SUDORIFEROUS GLANDS

related to hormonal changes and overactive sebaceous glands.

Condition/ Disease/Disorder Description Bromidrosis

Acne vulgaris Acne – pimples.

Osmidrosis: foul-smelling perspiration.

Anhidrosis

Lack of perspiration.

Hyperhidrosis Miliaria rubra

Excessive perspiration.

Prickly heat-eruptions of small red vesicles accompanied by burning and itching; caused by excessive heat. HYPERTROPHIES

Condition/ Disease/Disorder Description Keratoma

Acne rosacea Chronic inflammatory congestion of the cheeks and nose.

Callus; superficial, round, thickening of the epidermis caused by friction (inward growth is called a corn ).

Mole

A small, brown spot believed to be inherited; may be flat or deeply seated; pale tan- brown or bluish black.

Seborrhea/ seborrhea oleosa: oily dandruff Steatoma

Overactive sebaceous glands; often the basis of acne.

Verruca

Wart, a viral infection of the epidermis; benign.

Wen or sebaceous cyst (subcutaneous tumor), ranges in size from a pea to an orange.

Skin tag

Bead-like fibrous tissue that stands away from the flat surface; often a dark color.

Asteatosis

Dry, scaly skin characterized by absolute or partial deficiency of sebum.

Furuncle

Boil – a subcutaneous abscess that fills with pus.

Polyp

Growth that extends from the surface or may also grow with the body. INFLAMMATIONS

Condition/ Disease/Disorder Description Eczema

Cysts

Sac-like, elevated (usually round) area, contains liquid or semi-liquid substance; when a follicle ruptures deep within the dermis and irritating oil and dead cells seep into the surrounding tissues; often cause acne pits. Follicle filled with oil, dead cells and bacteria; inflammation causes white blood cells to rush to fight bacteria creating a pus.

Dry or moist lesions accompanied by itching, burning and various other unpleasant sensations; usually red, blistered and oozing. Rarely on the face, lesions are round, dry patches covered with coarse, silvery scales; if irritated, bleeding points occur; may be spread to larger

Psoriasis

Pimples

area but not contagious.

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Herpes simplex/ Fever blisters/cold sores; single group of vesicles on a red swollen base.

Vesicle

Blister with clear fluid; lies within or just beneath the epidermis; for example, poison ivy.

Herpes zoster: Shingles

Bulla

Blister containing a watery fluid; larger than a vesicle.

Pustule

ALLERGY-RELATED DERMATITIS

Elevation with inflamed base, containing pus. SECONDARY SKIN LESIONS

Condition/ Disease/Disorder Description Dermatitis Venenata

Allergy to ingredients in cosmetics and such products; protection is the prevention: gloves and protective garb.

Condition/ Disease/Disorder Description Scale

Accumulation of epidermal flakes, dry or greasy; for example, abnormal dandruff. Accumulation of serum and pus mixed with epidermal material; for example, scab. Abrasion produced by scratching or scraping; for example, raw surface after injury.

Crust

Dermatitis Medicamentosa

Dermatitis that occurs after an injection of a substance.

Excoriation

Fissure

Crack in the skin penetrating into the dermis.

Urticaria

Hives: Inflammation caused by an allergy to specific drugs/foods. PRIMARY SKIN LESIONS

Condition/ Disease/Disorder Description Macule

Ulcer

Open lesion on skin or mucous membrane, accompanied by pus and loss of skin depth. ACNE SCARS

Small, discolored spot or patch on the skin’s surface, neither raised nor sunken; for example, freckles. Small elevated pimple containing no fluid, but may have pus. Note : Yellow or white fatty papules around the eyes indicate an elevated cholesterol level; refer to a physician (xanthelasma). Itchy, swollen lesion that lasts only a few hours; for example, mosquito bite.

Condition/ Disease/Disorder Description Ice pick scar Large, visible,

open pores that look as if the skin has been jabbed with an ice pick; follicle always looks open; caused by deep pimple or cyst. Slightly sunken or depressed appearance; caused by pimples/cysts that have destroyed the skin and formed scar tissue. Lumpy mass of raised tissue on the surface of the skin; caused where cysts have clumped together.

Papule

Acne pit scar

Wheal

Acne raised scar

Tubercle

Solid lump larger than a papule; projects above the skin or lies with it; sized from pea to hickory nut. External swelling; varies in size, shape and color.

Tumor

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Book Code: CGA0523

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Onychogryposis Overcurvature of the nail; clawlike.

CONTAGIOUS DISORDERS

Condition/ Disease/Disorder Description • Tinea • Tinea Capitis – Ringworm of Scalp • Tinea Sycosis – Barber’s Itch (parasites) • Tinea Favosa – Honeycomb Ringworm • Tinea Unguium – Ringworm of Nails • Athlete’s Foot – Ringworm of Feet

Ringworm, due to fungi (plant or vegetable)small reddened patch of little blisters that spread outward and heal in the middle with scaling.

Pterygium

Sticky overgrowth of the cuticle.

Eggshell nail Leuconychia

Extremely thin nail.

White spots under the nail plate.

Paronychia

Bacterial inflammation of tissue (perionychium) around the nail.

Tinea corporis

Ringworm of the hand.

CAUTION! NEVER ATTEMPT TO DIAGNOSE BUMPS, LESIONS, ULCERATIONS OR DISCOLORATIONS AS SKIN CANCER, BUT YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SERIOUS SKIN DISORDERS AND SUGGEST THAT THE CLIENT SEE A PHYSICIAN OR DERMATOLOGIST. EXTREMELY SERIOUS DISORDERS – SKIN CANCERS Condition/ Disease/Disorder Description Basal cell carcinoma

Tinea pedia

Ringworm of the foot.

Least malignant; most common skin cancer; characterized by light or pearly nodules and visible blood vessels.

Agnail

Hangnail.

Onychia

An inflammation somewhere in the nail.

Squamous cell carcinoma

Scaly, red papules; blood vessels are not visible; more serious than basal cell.

Onychocyanosis Blue nail (usually caused by poor circulation). Hematoma nail Bruised nail

Malignant melanoma

Most serious; characterized by

(usually caused by a hammer or slammed door).

dark brown, black or discolored patches on the skin.

Tumor

Abnormal growth of swollen tissue.

Tinea unguium

Onychomycosis; ringworm of the nail.

NAIL DISEASES/DISORDERS

Condition/ Disease/Disorder Description Onychophagy Nail biting.

Onychorrexis

Split or brittle nails with a series of lengthwise ridges.

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Book Code: CGA0523

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Beau’s lines

Alopecia follicularis

Ridges/ corrugations/ furrows.

Hair loss caused by inflammation of hair follicles.

Alopecia prematura

Onychatrophia

Hair loss early in life.

Atrophy or wasting away of the nail.

Alopecia senilis Alopecia totalis

Hair loss from old age.

Hair loss from entire scalp.

Alopecia universalis Traction/ traumatic alopecia Postpartum alopecia

Hair loss from entire body.

Onychocryptosis Ingrown nail.

Patchy hair loss, sometimes due to repetitive traction on the hair by pulling or twisting.

Temporary hair loss at the conclusion of pregnancy.

Onychauxis Onychosis

Overgrowth of the nail plate.

Telogen effluven Hair loss during the telogen phase of the hair growth cycle.

Any nail disease.

Onychophosis

Accumulation of horny layers of epidermis under the nail.

Canities

Gray hair.

HAIR DISEASE/DISORDERS

Pediculosis capitis Monilithrix

Head lice.

Condition/ Disease/Disorder Description Pityriasis capitis simplex Dry dandruff. Pityriasis capitis steatoids seborrhea Oleosa: Oily dandruff

Beaded hair. Fragilitis crinium Brittle hair. Hirsuities/ hypertrichosis

Superfluous hair, excessive.

Greasy dandruff.

Scabies

Contagious disease caused by the itch mite.

Trichoptilosis Trichorrehexis nodosa Tinea favosa Tinea capitis

Split hair ends.

Knotted.

Impetigo/ infantigo

Highly contagious bacterial infection, usually staphylococcal. Chronic autoimmune disorder, causes red often scarring plaques, hair loss andinternal effects.

Honeycomb ringworm.

Ringworm of the scalp.

Discoid lupus rrythematosus (DLE)

Tinea sycosis Androgenetic alopecia

Barber’s itch.

Common hereditary hair loss.

Keloids

Forms when excess collagen forms at the site of a healing scar; overhealing.

Alopecia adnata Loss of hair shortly after birth. Alopecia areata Hair loss in patches.

Asteatosis

Excessive dry skin.

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Book Code: CGA0523

Page 10

SECTION 2: BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS

Table of contents ● Introduction : ○ Objectives. ● What are Bloodborne Pathogens? ○ Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). ○ Human Immunodeficiency (HIV). ● Signs and Symptoms: ○ Signs and Symptoms of (HBV). ○ Signs and Symptoms of (HIV).

● Risk Factors and Behaviors. ● Personal Protective Equipment. ● Decontamination & Sterilization ● Common Questions: ○ Discuss with the class: ■ HBV. ■ HIV. ● Precautions. ● Summary.

● Transmission :

○ Transmission Mediums. ○ Transmission Routes.

Introduction

A bloodborne pathogen is a specific cause of disease, such as a virus or bacteria. “Bloodborne” means carried by or in blood and certain other body fluids. AIDS, hepatitis B and C, malaria, and syphillis are examples of diseases that are caused by bloodborne pathogens.

Learning objectives Upon completion of this course, you will be able to: Š Discuss bloodborne pathogens. Š Identify two bloodborne pathogens of concern in the workplace. Two types of pathogens of concern in the workplace are: ● Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). ● Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Hepatitis B is much more contagious than HIV. Hepatitis B virus (HBV)

Š Explain how bloodborne pathogens are transmitted. Š List four high risk factors. Š Discuss the precautions to be used in the workplace.

WHAT ARE BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS?

Signs and symptoms of (HBV) Discuss and list different signs and symptoms of HBV.

The HB Virus infects the liver: it’s more common than HIV and is a greater risk on the job. Many HBV infected people have no problems or symptoms. Some, however, do develop serious or fatal problems such as cirrhosis, liver cancer, or chronic liver disease. There is a vaccine for HBV which is dispensed in three doses. Any employee at risk should take the vaccine.

__________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) HIV causes AIDS, it attacks the body’s immune system, reducing its ability to fight disease. To protect yourself against HIV and HBV, avoid direct exposure to infectious blood or body fluids - the prime transmitters of HBV and HIV.

Signs and symptoms of (HIV) Discuss and list different signs and symptoms of HIV.

__________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

TRANSMISSION

Transmission mediums Body fluids that can transmit infection are:

● Pleural fluid (fluid around the lungs). ● Pericardial fluid (fluid around the heart). ● Peritoneal fluid (fluid in the abdomen). ● Amniotic fluid (fluid that surrounds an embryo). ● Saliva (in dental procedures).

● Blood. ● Semen. ● Vaginal secretions. ● Cerebrospinal fluid (brain and spinal fluid). ● Synovial fluid (lubricating fluid of joints and tendons). Transmission routes HIV and hepatitis are transmitted only in the following ways: 1. Unprotected sexual contact involving the transfer of body fluids such as blood, semen and vaginal secretions. 2. Direct contact with infected blood through needle-sharing, transfusions and needlesticks. 3. Infected mothers can transmit the virus to their babies while in the womb or in breast milk.

You can’t catch HIV through casual contact, such as touching, hugging, being coughed on or sneezed on or working around someone who has AIDS. Family members and health care workers who are constantly around patients with AIDS do not catch AIDS when they use proper precautions.

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Book Code: CGA0523

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RISK FACTORS AND BEHAVIORS

● Between 1978 and the spring of 1985, received an organ transplant. ● Received artificial insemination from an untested donor. ● Between 1978 and the spring of 1985, received treatment for a clotting disorder. ● Have been exposed to blood or body fluids of a person known to have AIDS or be HIV-positive. ● Are immigrants from high risk areas (southeast Asia, Africa, Southern and Central Europe). ● Have tattoos. ● Are family of infected persons.

In light of what we know about the way the HBV and HIV virus are transmitted, risk of exposure to either virus is increased for people who: ● Have unprotected sex or multiple partners. ● Have unprotected sex with an IV drug user. ● Have shared needles while using drugs. ● Have occupational exposure to the blood or body fluids of others. ● Between 1978 and the spring of 1985, received blood or blood products in transfusion.

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

“Universal Precautions” is the name used to describe a prevention strategy in which all blood and potentially infectious materials are treated as if they are, in fact, infectious, regardless of the perceived status of the source individual. In other words, whether or not you think the blood/body fluid is infected with bloodborne pathogens, you treat it as if it is. This approach is used in all situations where exposure to blood or potentially infectious materials is possible. This also means that certain engineering and work practice controls shall always be utilized in situations where exposure may occur. Probably the first thing to do in any situation where you may be exposed to bloodborne pathogens is to ensure you are wearing the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE). For example, you may have noticed that emergency medical personnel, doctors, nurses, dentists, dental assistants, and other health care professionals always wear latex or protective gloves. This is a simple precaution they take in order to prevent blood or potentially infectious body fluids from coming in contact with their skin. To protect yourself, it is essential to have a barrier between you and the potentially infectious material. Discuss and list four rules to follow with PPE: 1. _____________________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________________ 4. _____________________________________________________ If you work in an area with routine exposure to blood or potentially infectious materials, the necessary PPE should be readily accessible. Contaminated gloves, clothing, PPE, or other materials should be placed in appropriately labeled bags or containers until it is disposed of, decontaminated, or laundered. It is important to find out where these bags or containers are located in your area before beginning work. This approach is used in all situations where exposure to blood or potentially infectious materials is possible. This also means that certain engineering and work practice controls shall always be utilized in situations where exposure may occur. Gloves Gloves should be made of latex, nitril, rubber, or other water impervious materials. If glove material is thin or flimsy, double gloving can provide an additional layer of protection. Also, if you know you have cuts or sores on your hands, you should cover

these with a bandage or similar protection as an additional precaution before donning your gloves. You should always inspect your gloves for tears or punctures before putting them on. If a glove is damaged, don’t use it! When taking contaminated gloves off, do so carefully. Make sure you don’t touch the outside of the gloves with any bare skin, and be sure to dispose of them in a proper container so that no one else will come contact with them either. ALWAYS CHECK YOUR GLOVES FOR DAMAGE BEFORE USING THEM! Goggles Anytime there is a risk of splashing or

vaporization of contaminated fluids, goggles and/or other eye protection should be used to protect your eyes. Again, bloodborne pathogens can be transmitted through the thin membranes of the eyes so it is important to protect them. Splashing could occur while cleaning up a spill, during laboratory procedures, or while providing first aid or medical assistance. Face shields Face shields may be worn in addition to goggles to provide additional face protection. A face shield will protect against splashes to the nose and mouth. Aprons Aprons may be worn to protect your clothing and to keep blood or other contaminated fluids from soaking through to your skin. Normal clothing that becomes contaminated with blood should be removed as soon as possible because fluids can seep through the cloth to come into contact with skin. Contaminated laundry should be handled as little as possible, and it should be placed in an appropriately labeled bag or container until it is decontaminated, disposed of, or laundered.

SECTION 3: DECONTAMINATION & STERILIZATION

Table of contents ● Introduction. ● Common Questions: ○ HBV. ○ HIV.

● Precautions .

Introduction All surfaces, tools, equipment and other objects that come in contact with blood or potentially infectious materials must be decontaminated and sterilized as soon as possible.

Equipment and tools must be cleaned and decontaminated before servicing or being put back into use.

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Decontamination should be accomplished by using: ● A solution of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (household bleach/ Clorox) diluted between 1:10 and 1:100 with water. The standard recommendation is to use at least a quarter cup of bleach per one gallon of water. ● Lysol or some other EPA-registered tuberculocidal disinfectant. Check the label of all disinfectants to make sure they meet this requirement. ● If you are cleaning up a spill of blood, you can carefully cover the spill with paper towels or rags, and leave it for at least 10 minutes. This will help ensure that any bloodborne HBV ● What symptoms do I have if I am suffering from hepatitis B infection? Many people with HBV do not have any symptoms and feel perfectly well. Occasionally, the hepatitis B infection may become active and make the patient feel ill with nausea, have a loss of appetite, and become jaundiced. ● What kind of outlook can I expect if I have a hepatitis B infection? Many patients with the hepatitis B infection can expect to lead a full and normal life. It is most important to regard yourself as a normal individual who happens to be infected with hepatitis B. However, it is important to take precautions HIV ● What will the AIDS test tell me? A positive result indicates the presence of antibodies to HIV, which has been found in people with AIDS. ● Does a negative test mean that I am not infected? Unfortunately, no. Although the test is reliable, there is a “window”- some say it’s six to twelve weeks, some say longer-when you could be developing the antibody, but the test will still be negative. That’s why you need to be retested at six to twelve weeks and again in 6 months. If you test negative, but still carry HIV, it is still possible to transmit the virus. Counseling will be provided when you receive your test results whether they are negative or positive. ● What happens if I test HIV positive? Currently, there is no known therapy to reverse antibody status. If an employee tests HIV positive, we recommend

pathogens are killed before you actually begin cleaning or wiping the material up. By covering the spill with paper towels or rags, you decrease the chances of causing a splash when you pour the bleach on it. ● If you are decontaminating equipment or other objects, you should leave the disinfectant in place for at least 10 minutes before continuing the cleaning process. ● Of course, any materials you use to clean up a spill of blood or potentially infectious materials must be decontaminated immediately, as well. This would include mops, sponges, reusable gloves, buckets, pails, etc.

COMMON QUESTIONS

not to spread the disease and to get medical checkups regularly. ● Can I get hepatitis from the vaccine? No. The hepatitis vaccine is a safe and highly purified vaccine. It does not contain any blood products or living or dead viruses. ● What should be done if the second or third vaccine dose is delayed? If the doses are delayed for less than one year, the remaining doses can be resumed to complete the vaccination without the need to restart the vaccination series. If the lapsed doses are more than one year apart, extra doses or restarting of the series may be required for high risk individuals. ongoing medical monitoring and possible antiretroviral (contains RNA for protein productions) drugs. ● What is the prognosis? Research indicates that HIV - positive individuals will eventually develop AIDS. Currently, there is no treatment for AIDS and it is generally believed to be eventually fatal. As discussed previously, there is a vaccine for hepatitis B which is available to all employees at risk. ● What HIV symptoms should I watch for? Almost half of the people who contract HIV experience a flu-like illness six to twelve weeks after exposure. Employees who experience an exposure incident should report any illness that feels like the flu or mononucleosis, especially if it is accompanied by fever, rash, or swollen glands. ● Will my employer know the results of my test? No. The health care professional will give the results of your tests to you only. All records, including test results, relating to an exposure incident are Strictly Confidential .

PRECAUTIONS

○ Use latex condoms from start to finish, even if your partner is HIV-positive. Job situations which may result in exposure include:

The following precautions should be taken by anyone who has had an exposure incident so that others are not exposed. ● Inform sexual or needle-sharing partners so they can be tested for the virus. ● Inform physicians and other health care givers so they can protect themselves. ● Don’t give any blood, tissue, organs, or semen. ● Remove the organ donor designation from your driver’s license. ● Hold off on getting pregnant until your health care provider says it is okay. ● If you are pregnant, get counseling. ● Don’t breast-feed. ● Be careful not to expose others to your blood or bodily fluids. ● Don’t share personal items such as toothbrushes, razors, etc. ● Use a bleach solution of 1:10, 70% isopropyl alcohol or other EPA-approved germicide to clean up any spills of blood. ● Refrain from sexual activity, or at least take the following precautions: ○ Limit the number of partners.

● Job duties that bring you into contact with needles or other sharp objects such as glass that might be contaminated with infected blood. ● Providing emergency first-aid assistance to coworkers. Discuss with the class other circumstances in which exposure is possible It is important that you use universal precautions to prevent becoming infected by contaminated blood. Universal precautions means

that all blood and body fluids are considered a potentially infectious.

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Book Code: CGA0523

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